The tests that professionals use

We have compiled a comprehensive list of tests commonly used to diagnose dyslexia and language disability from preschool through adulthood.

For each instrument, we provide you with a brief description of what the test measures, the age range, and the publisher information. Our goal is to provide this list so that you can be knowledgeable about tests that the professional may use when evaluating your strengths and weaknesses. Click on your age range to read about these various testing instruments.

PRESCHOOLERS (BIRTH-5 YEARS)

Language: Oral and Written
  • Assessing Linguistic Behaviors Communicative Intentions Scale (ALB): The ALB is used to assess a child's performance in the areas of cognitive-social and linguistic development (cognitive antecedents to word meaning, play, communicative intentions, language comprehension, and language production). The test is given to children from birth to 24 months. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Olswang, L., Stoel-Gammon, C., Coggins, T., & Carpenter, R. (1987). Assessing linguistic behaviors. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fifth Edition (CELF-5): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 21 years of age. The test assesses language content and form in both expressive and receptive language modalities. In addition, it includes a subtest for the assessment of pragmatics. The CELF-5 has been explicitly designed to adhere to state and federal regulations, as specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendment of 1997, and to facilitate the development of individualized education programs.

    Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-5. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-Preschool 2): This norm-referenced test is given to children ages 3–6 years to measure language development. It is best used for screening and diagnostic purposes. The CELF-Preschool 2 is a four-level, flexible assessment system to determine if a language disorder exists, the nature of the disorder, to measure early classroom and literacy fundamentals, and to evaluate language and communication in context. The test includes a core language score, incorporating measurement of sentence structure, word structure, and expressive vocabulary. Estimated administration time of 15-20 minutes; norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Semel, E. (2004). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals–preschool 2. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 21 years of age. Language processing skills including comprehension, expression and retrieval are measured in fifteen tests, in four language structure categories: lexical/semantic, syntactic, supralinguistic, and pragmatic. The different tests can be administered on an as-needed basis. The test is orally-administered and requires a verbal or nonverbal response; no reading or writing is necessary.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning (DIAL-3): This test was developed to aid in the identification of young children ages 3- 6 with delays in five areas: cognitive/basic concepts, language, motor, self-help, and social-emotional. During the test, the child is observed for nine specific behaviors, including willingness and attention level. The test can be administered in different settings, and includes a parent questionnaire. DIAL-3, also available in Spanish, is normed in both languages.

    Mardell-Czudnowski, C., & Goldenberg, D. S. (1998). Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning (Third Edition). American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (EOWPVT-4): This is a picture-naming test that measures the child’s naming and expressive vocabulary skills. It is given to children ages 2–18 years. Administration can be completed in less than 20 minutes. Scores are reported as age equivalents.

    Martin, N., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive one-word picture vocabulary test, fourth edition. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

  • MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories-Words and Gestures (CDI): This is a checklist which asks parents to identify various words their child (8-16 months) says. It includes vocabulary related to people, action words, description words, pronouns, prepositions, question words, things around the home, and also sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Thal, D., Bates, E., Hartung, J., et al. (1993). MacArthur communicative development inventories: Words and gestures. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Oral and Written Language Scales: Written Expression (OWLS Written Expression): This is an individually-administered test that is used for ages 5–21. It has three scales: written expression, oral expression, and listening comprehension. The written expression scale measures the use of handwriting, spelling, and punctuation. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and written language scales: Written expression. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4): This is an individually-administered test that measures the child’s receptive vocabulary. It is used for individuals 2 years old through adulthood. The child is shown a page with four pictures on it. The examiner says the name of one of the pictures and asks the child to point to it. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test 4. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4): This scale is used to identify preschool children with language disorder or delay. The PLS-4 consists of two core subscales, the auditory comprehension subscale (AC) and expressive communication subscale (EC). The AC subscale is used to assess the child's ability to understand spoken language. The EC subscale is used to assess the child's ability to communicate with others. Norm-referenced scoring is used, and percentile scores and age-based equivalents are used overall and in the two subscales.

    Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (2002). Preschool language scale-4. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

  • Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Test, Third Edition (REEL-3): This is a test designed to assess the receptive and expressive emerging language abilities of children from birth to 36 months of age. This individually-administered test is used to diagnose infants and toddlers who may have impairments or disabilities that affect their language development. The REEL-3 also includes a vocabulary inventory and supplementary questions to further explore understanding of the infant or young child's emerging language abilities. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Bzoch, K. R., League R, Brown, V. L. (2003). Receptive-expressive emergent language test-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT): This test works by measuring the student’s ability to match an object or concept with its name. When the examiner says a certain word, the student identifies which of the four illustrations on the plate shows the word’s meaning. It can be used in conjunction with the EOWPVT (Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test) to examine developmental differences in receptive and expressive language skills; the two tests were co-normed. Administered to children ages 2-18 years.

    Brownell, R. (2000). Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, Third Edition (TACL-3): This is a picture-pointing test assessing the understanding of word classes (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives), grammatical morphology (e.g., prepositions, singular vs. plural nouns, verbs), and sentence structures (e.g., questions, negatives) in children ages 3–10. The child is shown three pictures and given a stimulus, word, or sentence and expected to point to the appropriate picture. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition (TAPS-3): This test measures what the person does with what is heard, and can be used for ages 4-18. There are numerous subscores, and three cluster scores including basic auditory skills, auditory memory, and auditory cohesion. The subtests are arranged in a developmental progression from easiest to hardest, and an additional test, Auditory Figure-Ground, is also available to evaluate how the child’s processing skills relate to the real world. This test is meant to be used alongside other tests for a complete evaluation.

    Martin, N.A., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Early Written Language 2 (TEWL-2): Three scores are reported: the Global Writing Quotient; the Basic Writing Quotient, which measures ability in spelling, capitalization, punctuation and sentence structure; and the Contextual Writing Quotient, which measures the ability of the child to invent a story when shown a picture, taking into account format, cohesion, thematic elements, and story structure. It is used for children ages 3-10 years.

    Hresko, W., Herron, S., & Peak, P. (2001). Test of Early Written Language 2. Pearson. Bloomington, MN.

  • Test of Narrative Language (TNL): This test is unique in that it measures how well children use their knowledge of language in functional discourse, as opposed to measuring knowledge of the actual components of language. The test includes three formats—one without picture cues to test auditory comprehension--and both single and sequence picture cues. The testing session is recorded and used to identify children with language impairments. It is administered to children ages 5-11.

    Gillam, R.B. & Pearson, N.A. (2004). Test of Narrative Language. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

  • Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL): This test is used to evaluate social language skills. It includes 44 items, each of which establishes a social context. After a verbal stimulus prompt from the examiner, who also displays a picture, the child responds to the dilemma. This test is used for children ages 5–11. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Phelps-Terasaki, D., & Phelps-Gunn, T. (1992). Test of pragmatic language. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Reading
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2): This test measures phonological abilities and processing skills using three indicators: the Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), the Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) and the Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ). These assess awareness levels, retrieval from short-term and long-term memory storage, and the ability to quickly process tasks. The test also helps to monitor progress achieved by special intervention programs and is given to children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age.

    Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., Rashotte, C., & Pearson, N. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teach Strategies (DAR-TTS): The DAR test is given to ages 5-adult to measure students’ strengths and weaknesses in key areas of student learning with reading, including print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading accuracy and fluency, silent reading comprehension, spelling and word meaning. The DAR was developed for classroom use, as well as for reading specialists, special education teachers, and other professionals to help students read better, but no special requirements are needed for administration. The test is scored simultaneously with administration and DAR ScoringPro and the test is untimed, generally encompassing about 40 minutes; there are two forms to allow progress measurement with pre- and post measurement. The Trial Teaching Strategies program is an online resource meant to accompany the DAR test. It provides short lessons that address the student’s strengths and weaknesses from the test. The student or professional can log in and input the DAR results to obtain learning strategies.

    Florence G. Roswell, Florence G., Chall, Jeanne S., Curtis, Mary E. & Kearns, Gail. (2005). The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing. (2006) Trial Teach Strategies.

  • Qualitative Reading Inventory, Fifth Edition (QRI-5): This test assesses reading ability at emergent through high school levels. The test provides graded word lists and many written passages that are designed to help evaluate the child’s oral reading, silent reading, and listening comprehension. The child is also asked questions about his or her prior knowledge. Raw scores are used to convert results into reading level scores.

    Caldwell, J. S., & Leslie, L. (2011). Qualitative reading inventory-5. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R): This test is used to assess basic skills in reading and comprehension. Its main purpose is to measure several important aspects of reading ability. It tests children in kindergarten to adulthood and the administration takes 40–45 minutes for the entire battery and 15 minutes for the Short Scale. The tests have a Readiness Cluster, Basic Skills Cluster, Reading Comprehension Cluster, Total Reading-Full Scale, and Total Reading-Short Scale, plus a supplementary letter checklist. Norm tables are provided to convert raw scores into W scores, grade-equivalents, age-equivalents, and standard scores.

    Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading and mastery tests: Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Achievement
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition Comprehensive Form (KTEA-II): The KTEA-II provides scores for academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language composite areas, as well as several reading-related skills. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 4–25. Age and grade-standard scores can be calculated.

    Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman N. L. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II): This is an individually-administered battery used to assess the achievement of individuals ages 4 through adulthood. It provides composite scores in four domains of educational achievement: reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language. It is used to make meaningful comparisons between achievement and ability performance, therefore noting if there is any discrepancy between them. Norm-referenced scoring is used, either based on age or grade.

    Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH): This assessment measures individual academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and knowledge. Testing can begin at 2 years of age and proceed through adulthood (2–90+). The test consists of questions that are read aloud by the examiner. The child then responds to the question either verbally or by writing. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Intelligence
  • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II): This assessment is designed to measure the processing and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents ages 3–18. There are four main areas that comprise the score: sequential processing scale, simultaneous processing scale, achievement scale, and mental processing. The sequential processing scale measures the short-term memory of the child by having the child perform subtests that are related to sequence order. The simultaneous processing scale asks the child to use problem solving skills that require several processes at the same time. The achievement scale is a scale that tests the ability of the child to use applied skills learned through home or school. The mental processing is the combination of the sequential and the simultaneous processing tests. The mental processing score is considered a very good estimate of the intellectual functioning level of the child.

    Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children- II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood, Fifth Edition (Early SB5): This is a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children ages 2-7 years. By identifying developmental disabilities and exceptionalities, Early SB5 provides useful information for intervention planning. The battery was developed to appraise a child's cognitive assets and limitations in the most efficient, reliable, and immediate way. The new edition includes subtests that require only minimal nonverbal responses from the child. Average testing times may vary, although the total time ranges from 15-50 minutes or longer. Norm referenced scoring is used, as well as age-equivalent scores which can track changes in an individual over time.

    Roid, G. (2005). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales for early childhood 5. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

  • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition (WPPSI-III): This test is a measure of cognitive ability for children ages 2 years old and 6 months through 7 years old and 3 months. The WPPSI-III is a two-level test that uses different subtests for two age ranges. It consists of composite scores that reflect intellectual functioning in specified cognitive domains (e.g., Verbal Intelligence Quotient and Performance Intelligence Quotient), as well as a composite score that represents a child's overall intellectual ability (i.e., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient). In addition, this revision has included composite scores for a Processing Speed Quotient and a General Language Composite. Administration of the core subtests requires approximately 30 to 50 minutes depending on the child's age. The WPPSI-III provides the user with a comprehensive picture of the child's cognitive ability. The full-scale IQ, verbal and performance IQs, and the additional subset scores are all norm-referenced.

    Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence- III.San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG): This test provides a set of individually-administered tests to measure a child’s academic and intellectual achievements. These are tests specifically engineered to measure cognitive abilities and aspects related to cognitive functioning. These tests assess knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking. Some of the tests are appropriate for children as young as 24 months, but all tests can be administered to individuals between the ages of 5 and 95 years old. The WJ III COG was co-normed with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Special norms are provided for college and university students.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Articulation 
  •  Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3): This is a norm-referenced test of standard American English consonant and vowel articulation that can be administered to individuals 1.5-19 years of age. This test focuses on the articulation of sounds while using pictures to assess consonant, vowel, or single phoneme pronunciation. The child will be asked to name pictures shown by the examiner, and then is asked a question about the card to test vocabulary.

    Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale-3. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

  • Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Second Edition (GFTA-2): This is a norm-referenced test which focuses on the articulation of sounds by isolating a consonant in each word position (beginning, middle, and end). The test is divided into three parts: sounds in words, sounds in sentences, and stimulability. These are intended to assess consonant production across different speaking conditions. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old.

    Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation-2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Kaufman Speech Praxis for Children (KSPT): This test was developed to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of developmental apraxia of speech in preschoolers. This norm-referenced test measures a child’s imitative response to the clinician, and works to evaluate the level of breakdown in speech and measure progress by measuring and quantifying gains in motor-speech using individual sections of the test. The KSPT can be used to generate goals for Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). Includes normative information related to the “normal” speaking population of children and the “disordered” population.

    Kaufman, Nancy R. (1995). Kaufman Speech Praxis Test for Children. William Beaumont Hospital Series in Speech & Language Pathology. Wayne State University Press. Detroit, MI.

  • Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA-2): This test is meant as a companion to the G-FTA-2. Together with this test, the KLPA-2 functions to give a phonological analysis of articulation ability. It helps you diagnose and plan remediation for ten common phonological disorders such as Initial Voicing and Liquid Simplification. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old. Scoring can also be done via CD-ROM.

    Khan, L., & Lewis, N. (1986). Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Photo Articulation Test – 3rd Edition (PAT-3): The PAT-3 revised test provides a standardized way to document articulation errors in children 3-0 through 8-11. The test consists of photographs that test consonants and connected speech, and the child’s identification of the photograph is recorded to show the presence of any errors. The results provide a view of the child’s articulation errors. The test was standardized with a sample of more than 800 children in 23 states levels prekindergarten to Grade 4.

    Lippke, B., Dickey, S., Selmar, J., & Soder, A. (1997). Photo Articulation Test—3rd Edition.

Social
  • Ages and Stages Questionnaires: A Parent-Completed, Child-Monitoring System, Second Edition (ASQ): This is a questionnaire that parents complete. 30 items assess the child in their natural environment. The questionnaire covers five key developmental areas: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social. The questionnaire is administered individually in children between the ages of 4 and 60 months. Each test item uses a rating scale format where parents/caregivers observe a specific behavior in their child and then record whether it is present or not. Item scores are recorded in one of three ways: yes, sometimes, or not yet. These responses are then converted to point values, and a summary score and calculated for different areas (e.g., communication, fine motor, etc.) These scores are then compared to empirically derived cutoff scores. If a child falls below a given cutoff score then further diagnostic testing is recommended.

    Bricker, D., Squires, J., Mounts, L., Potter, L., Nickel, R., Twombly, E., et al. (1999). Ages & stages questionnaires: A Parent-completed, child-monitoring system (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II): This is a test administered to the parent or the caregiver in an interview format. It is used to assess individuals from birth to adulthood. It measures the personal and social skills an individual uses in daily situations in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and developmental delays. The scale includes 297 items that provide a very general assessment of adaptive behavior. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-II. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Motor Skills
  • Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III): This test measures the mental and motor development of children between the ages of 1 month and 42 months. The examiner presents the child with game-like tasks, including stacking blocks, putting pegs on a board, and naming pictures. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-III. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 5th Edition (Beery VMI): This test is given to children ages 2–18. It measures the extent to which the child can integrate their visual and motor skills. The Beery VMI includes two forms: full and short. The full form consists of 30 items and can be used with children ages 2 to 18 years and adults to age 100. The short form includes 21 items and is used with children ages 2 through 7 years. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Beery, K. E., & Beery, N. A. (2004). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: 5th edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2): This test is designed to assess early childhood motor development in children from birth to 6 years old. The test is divided into gross motor scales, fine motor scales and total motor scales. There are six subtests which include stationary, reflexes, locomotion, grouping, object manipulation, and visual-motor integration. These scales evaluate grasping, hand use, finger dexterity, and hand-eye coordination. Norm-referenced scoring is used, with scores reported as percentiles, standard scores and age equivalents.

    Folio, M. R., & Fewell, R. R. (2000). Peabody developmental motor scales-2. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

     

EARLY ELEMENTARY (6-8 YEARS)

Language: Oral and Written
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-5): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 21 years of age. The test assesses language content and form in both expressive and receptive language modalities. In addition, it includes a subtest for the assessment of pragmatics. The CELF-5 has been explicitly designed to adhere to state and federal regulations, as specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendment of 1997, and to facilitate the development of individualized education programs.

    Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-5. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-Preschool 2): This norm-referenced test is given to children ages 3–6 years to measure language development. It is best used for screening and diagnostic purposes. The CELF-Preschool 2 is a four-level, flexible assessment system to determine if a language disorder exists, the nature of the disorder, to measure early classroom and literacy fundamentals, and to evaluate language and communication in context. The test includes a core language score, incorporating measurement of sentence structure, word structure, and expressive vocabulary with an estimated administration time of 15-20 minutes. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Semel, E. (2004). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals–preschool 2. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 21 years of age. Language processing skills including comprehension, expression and retrieval are measured in fifteen tests, in four language structure categories: Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic. The different tests can be administered on an as-needed basis. The test is orally administered and requires a verbal or nonverbal response; no reading or writing is necessary.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (EOWPVT-4): This is a picture-naming test that measures the child’s naming and expressive vocabulary skills. It is given to children ages 2–18 years. Administration can be completed in less than 20 minutes. Scores are reported as age equivalents.

    Martin, N., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive one-word picture vocabulary test, fourth edition. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

  • Oral and Written Language Scales: Written Expression (OWLS Written Expression): This is an individually administered test that is used for ages 5–21. It has three scales: written expression, oral expression, and listening comprehension. The written expression scale measures the use of handwriting, spelling, and punctuation. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and written language scales: Written expression. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4): This is an individually-administered test that measures the child’s receptive vocabulary. It is used for individuals 2 years old through adulthood. The child is shown a page with four pictures on it. The examiner says the name of one of the pictures and asks the child to point to it. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test 4. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT): This test works by measuring the student’s ability to match an object or concept with its name. When the examiner says a certain word, the student identifies which of the four illustrations on the plate shows the word’s meaning. It can be used in conjunction with the EOWPVT (Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test) to examine developmental differences in receptive and expressive language skills; the two tests were co-normed. It is given to children ages 2-18 years.

    Brownell, R. (2000). Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, Third Edition (TACL-3): This is a picture-pointing test assessing the understanding of word classes (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives), grammatical morphology (e.g., prepositions, singular vs. plural nouns, verbs), and sentence structures (e.g., questions, negatives) in children ages 3–10. The child is shown three pictures and given a stimulus or word or sentence and expected to point to the appropriate picture. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition (TAPS-3): This test measures what the person does with what is heard, and can be used for ages 4-18. There are numerous subscores, and three cluster scores including Basic Auditory Skills, Auditory Memory, and Auditory cohesion. The subtests are arranged in a developmental progression from easiest to hardest, and an additional test, Auditory Figure-Ground, is also available to evaluate how the child’s processing skills relate to the real world. This test is meant to be used alongside other tests for a complete evaluation.

    Martin, N.A., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Early Written Language 2 (TEWL-2): Three scores are reported: the Global Writing Quotient; the Basic Writing Quotient, which measures ability in spelling, capitalization, punctuation and sentence structure; and the Contextual Writing Quotient, which measures the ability of the child to invent a story when shown a picture, taking into account format, cohesion, thematic elements, and story structure. It is used for children ages 3-10 years.

    Hresko, W., Herron, S., & Peak, P. (2001). Test of Early Written Language 2. Pearson. Bloomington, MN.

  • Test of Narrative Language (TNL): This test is unique in that it measures how well children use their knowledge of language in functional discourse, as opposed to measuring knowledge of the actual components of language. The test includes three formats—one without picture cues to test auditory comprehension, and both single and sequence picture cues. The testing session is recorded and used to identify children with language impairments. It is administered to children ages 5-11.

    Gillam, R.B. & Pearson, N.A. (2004). Test of Narrative Language. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

  • Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL): This test is used to evaluate social language skills. It includes 44 items, each of which establishes a social context. After a verbal stimulus prompt from the examiner, who also displays a picture, the child responds to the dilemma. This test is used for children ages 5–11. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Phelps-Terasaki, D., & Phelps-Gunn, T. (1992). Test of pragmatic language. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Written Language, Third Edition (TOWL-3): The Test of Written Language is a comprehensive test of written language, most useful in identifying student writers who are performing substantially below their peers. The child writes a story about a picture that is shown. It can be administered to children ages of 7–18 years, in individual or group settings. The story is scored based on the child’s understanding of written vocabulary words, as well as spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Hammill, D. D., & Larsen, S. C. (1996). Test of written language-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition (TWS-5): This dictation-based spelling test comes with two alternate forms, so that the test can be repeated to evaluate progress. The norm-referenced test was formulated after a review of 2,000 spelling rules. The student is evaluated on spelling words in written form and the test can be used to identify those who may need intervention and to diagnose specific areas of strength and weakness. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 6–18.

    Moats, L.C., Larsen, S., & Hammill, D. (2013). Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Word Test 2: Elementary: This test investigates the child’s understanding of word relationships and how he/she stores, recalls, and uses vocabulary. The results can be used to coordinate therapy and classroom objectives. The test is made of six subtests, including associations, synonyms, semantic absurdities, antonyms, definitions, and flexible word use. It is administered to children 6-11 years old.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., LoGiudice, C. & Orman, J. (2004). The Word Test 2: Elementary. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

Reading
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2): This test measures phonological abilities and processing skills using three indicators: the Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), the Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) and the Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ). These assess awareness levels, retrieval from short-term and long-term memory storage, and the ability to quickly process tasks. The test also helps to monitor progress achieved by special intervention programs and is given to children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age.

    Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., Rashotte, C., & Pearson, N. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teach Strategies (DAR-TTS): The DAR test is given to ages 5-adult to measure students’ strengths and weaknesses in key areas of student learning with reading, including print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading accuracy and fluency, silent reading comprehension, spelling and word meaning. The DAR was developed for classroom use, as well as for reading specialists, special education teachers, and other professionals to help students read better, but no special requirements are needed for administration. The test is scored simultaneously with administration and DAR ScoringPro and the test is untimed, generally encompassing about 40 minutes; there are two forms to allow progress measurement with pre- and post measurement. The Trial Teaching Strategies program is an online resource meant to accompany the DAR test. It provides short lessons that address the student’s strengths and weaknesses from the test. The student or professional can log in and input the DAR results to obtain learning strategies.

    Florence G. Roswell, Florence G., Chall, Jeanne S., Curtis, Mary E. & Kearns, Gail. (2005). The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing. (2006) Trial Teach Strategies.

  • Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (GORT-5): This is a test that measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. GORT assists the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. There are two tests forms, each containing 14 reading sequences and relevant questions. This test is administered to children ages 6-0 to 23-11. Norm-referenced testing is used; raw scores are converted into grade equivalent scores and standard scores.

    Wiederhold, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2012). Gray oral reading tests-5. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Gray Silent Reading Tests (GSRT): This assessment tests the child’s ability to comprehend while reading silently. The GSRT consists of two parallel forms, each with 13 paragraphs (stories). Each story is followed by five multiple-choice questions designed to assess comprehension of unfamiliar reading material. The assessment can be used to help children whose reading comprehension is behind peers. The test is administered to children ages 7–25. Each form yields raw scores, grade equivalents, age equivalents, percentiles, and a Silent Reading Quotient.

    Blalock, G., & Wiederholt, J. L. (2000). Gray silent reading tests. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Qualitative Reading Inventory, Fifth Edition (QRI-5): This test assesses reading ability at emergent through high school levels. The test provides graded word lists and many written passages that are designed to help evaluate the child’s oral reading, silent reading, and listening comprehension. The child is also asked questions about his or her prior knowledge. Raw scores are used to convert results into reading level scores.

    Caldwell, J. S., & Leslie, L. (2011). Qualitative reading inventory-5. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

  • Rapid Automatic Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests: The RAN/RAS measures word retrieval fluency and helps to identify students who might be at risk for reading failure. The test consists of four rapid naming tests for familiar letters, numbers, colors and objects and two rapid alternating stimulus tests. This assessment can be completed in 5 to 10 minutes and is easy to administer and score. It is designed for kindergarten through high school students.

    Wolf, M, & Denckla, B. (2005). Rapid Automatic Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests (RAN/RAS). Austin, TX: ProEd Publishing Company.

  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R): This test is used to assess basic skills in reading and comprehension. Its main purpose is to measure several important aspects of reading ability. It tests children in kindergarten to adulthood and the administration takes 40–45 minutes for the entire battery and 15 minutes for the Short Scale. The tests have a Readiness Cluster, Basic Skills Cluster, Reading Comprehension Cluster, Total Reading-Full Scale, and Total Reading-Short Scale, plus a supplementary letter checklist. Norm tables are provided to convert raw scores into W scores, grade-equivalents, age-equivalents, and standard scores.

    Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading and mastery tests: Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Achievement
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition Comprehensive Form (KTEA-II): The KTEA-II provides scores for academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language composite areas, as well as several reading-related skills. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 4–25. Age and grade-standard scores can be calculated.

    Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman N. L. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II): This is an individually-administered battery used to assess the achievement of individual’s ages 4 through adulthood. It provides composite scores in four domains of educational achievement: reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language. It is used to make meaningful comparisons between achievement and ability performance, therefore noting if there is any discrepancy between them. Norm-referenced scoring is used, either based on age or grade.

    Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH): This assessment measures individual academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and knowledge. Testing can begin at 2 years of age and proceed through adulthood (2–90+). The test consists of questions that are read aloud by the examiner. The child then responds to the question either verbally or by writing. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Intelligence
  • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II): This assessment is designed to measure the processing and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents ages 3–18. There are four main areas that comprise the score: sequential processing scale, simultaneous processing scale, achievement scale, and mental processing. The sequential processing scale measures the short-term memory of the child by having the child perform subtests that are related to sequence order. The simultaneous processing scale asks the child to use problem solving skills that require several processes at the same time. The achievement scale is a scale that tests the ability of the child to use applied skills learned through home or school. The mental processing is the combination of the sequential and the simultaneous processing tests. The mental processing score is considered a very good estimate of the intellectual functioning level of the child.

    Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children- II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA): This tool assesses the child’s general level of intelligence for ages 2 1/2–8 1/2. In order to identify the child’s strengths and weaknesses, it tests perceptual performance, quantitative, memory, motor, verbal, and general cognitive skills. Norm-referenced scoring is used. Although the MSCA administration time (60–90 minutes) can sometimes stretch the ability of a preschool child to sit still, most children proceed easily through the subtests and seem to enjoy the activities.

    McCarthy, D. (1972). McCarthy scales of children’s abilities. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood, Fifth Edition (Early SB5): This is a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children ages 2-7 years. By identifying developmental disabilities and exceptionalities, Early SB5 provides useful information for intervention planning. The battery was developed to appraise a child's cognitive assets and limitations in the most efficient, reliable, and immediate way. The new edition includes subtests that require only minimal nonverbal responses from the child. Average testing times may vary, although the total time ranges from 15-50 minutes or longer. Norm referenced scoring is used, as well as age-equivalent scores which can track changes in an individual over time.

    Roid, G. (2005). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales for early childhood 5. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition Integrated (WISC-IV Integrated): This is a test that is administered to children ages 6–17 years old. The WISC-IV Integrated is organized by four cognitive domains: verbal, perceptual, working memory, and processing speed. The test includes standardized measures of test behavior, problem-solving style, and cognitive processes. The test provides a systematic observation of a child's unique problem-solving strategies and can assist the experienced clinician in determining an individual child's strengths and weaknesses, setting baselines for performance, monitoring changes over time and determining recommendations for accommodations. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Wechsler, D., Fein, D., Kramer J., Morris, R., Delis, D., et al. (2004). Wechsler intelligence scale for children IV. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition (WPPSI-III): This test is a measure of cognitive ability for children ages 2 years old and 6 months through 7 years old and 3 months. The WPPSI-III is a two-level test that uses different subtests for two age ranges. It consists of composite scores that reflect intellectual functioning in specified cognitive domains (e.g., Verbal Intelligence Quotient and Performance Intelligence Quotient), as well as a composite score that represents a child's overall intellectual ability (i.e., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient). In addition, this revision has included composite scores for a Processing Speed Quotient and a General Language Composite. Administration of the core subtests requires approximately 30 to 50 minutes depending on the child's age. The WPPSI-III provides the user with a comprehensive picture of the child's cognitive ability. The full-scale IQ, verbal and performance IQs, and the additional subset scores are all norm-referenced.

    Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-III. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG): This test provides a set of individually-administered tests to measure a child’s academic and intellectual achievements. These are tests specifically engineered to measure cognitive abilities and aspects related to cognitive functioning. These tests assess knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking. Some of the tests are appropriate for children as young as 24 months, but all tests can be administered to individuals between the ages of 5 and 95 years old. The WJ III COG was co-normed with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Special norms are provided for college and university students.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Articulation
  • Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3): This is a norm-referenced test of standard American English consonant and vowel articulation that can be administered to individuals 1.5-19 years of age. This test focuses on the articulation of sounds while using pictures to assess consonant, vowel, or single phoneme pronunciation. The child will be asked to name pictures shown by the examiner, and then is asked a question about the card to test vocabulary.

    Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale-3. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

  • Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Second Edition (GFTA-2): This is a norm-referenced test which focuses on the articulation of sounds by isolating a consonant in each word position (beginning, middle, and end). The test is divided into three parts: sounds in words, sounds in sentences, and stimulability. These are intended to assess consonant production across different speaking conditions. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old.

    Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation-2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA-2): This test is meant as a companion to the G-FTA-2. Together with this test, the KLPA-2 functions to give a phonological analysis of articulation ability. It helps you diagnose and plan remediation for ten common phonological disorders such as Initial Voicing and Liquid Simplification. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old. Scoring can also be done via CD-ROM.

    Khan, L., & Lewis, N. (1986). Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Photo Articulation Test – 3rd Edition (PAT-3): The PAT-3 revised test provides a standardized way to document articulation errors in children 3-0 through 8-11. The test consists of photographs that test consonants and connected speech, and the child’s identification of the photograph is recorded to show the presence of any errors. The results provide a view of the child’s articulation errors. The test was standardized with a sample of more than 800 children in 23 states levels prekindergarten to Grade 4.

    Lippke, B., Dickey, S., Selmar, J., & Soder, A. (1997). Photo Articulation Test—3rd Edition.

Social
  • Test of Problem Solving 3: Elementary (TOPS-3): This tests a child’s reasoning and thinking abilities for everyday events. It is given to children ages 6–13. During the test, the child is shown a string of pictures that deal with health, environment, learning, community, and family problems. The child is then asked about the pictures and is evaluated based on his or her responses and problem solving skills. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., & LoGiudice, C. (2005). Test of problem solving: Elementary-3. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II): This is a test administered to the parent or the caregiver in an interview format. It is used to assess individuals from birth to adulthood. It measures the personal and social skills an individual uses in daily situations in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and developmental delays. The scale includes 297 items that provide a very general assessment of adaptive behavior. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-II. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Motor Skills
  • The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 5th Edition (Beery VMI): This test is given to children ages 2–18. It measures the extent to which the child can integrate their visual and motor skills. The Beery VMI includes two forms: full and short. The full form consists of 30 items and can be used with children ages 2 to 18 years and adults to age 100. The short form includes 21 items and is used with children ages 2 through 7 years. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Beery, K. E., & Beery, N. A. (2004). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: 5th edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2): This test is designed to assess early childhood motor development in children from birth to 6 years old. The test is divided into gross motor scales, fine motor scales and total motor scales. There are six subtests which include stationary, reflexes, locomotion, grouping, object manipulation, and visual-motor integration. These scales evaluate grasping, hand use, finger dexterity, and hand-eye coordination. Norm-referenced scoring is used, with scores reported as percentiles, standard scores and age equivalents.

    Folio, M. R., & Fewell, R. R. (2000). Peabody developmental motor scales-2. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

     

UPPER ELEMENTARY (9-11 YEARS)

Language: Oral and Written
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-5): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 21 years of age. The test assesses language content and form in both expressive and receptive language modalities. In addition, it includes a subtest for the assessment of pragmatics. The CELF-5 has been explicitly designed to adhere to state and federal regulations, as specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendment of 1997, and to facilitate the development of individualized education programs.

    Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-5. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 21 years of age. Language processing skills including comprehension, expression and retrieval are measured in fifteen tests, in four language structure categories: Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic. The different tests can be administered on an as-needed basis. The test is orally administered and requires a verbal or nonverbal response; no reading or writing is necessary.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (EOWPVT-4): This is a picture-naming test that measures the child’s naming and expressive vocabulary skills. It is given to children ages 2–18 years. Administration can be completed in less than 20 minutes. Scores are reported as age equivalents.

    Martin, N., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive one-word picture vocabulary test, fourth edition. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

  • Oral and Written Language Scales: Written Expression (OWLS Written Expression): This is an individually administered test that is used for ages 5–21. It has three scales: written expression, oral expression, and listening comprehension. The written expression scale measures the use of handwriting, spelling, and punctuation. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and written language scales: Written expression. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4): This is an individually-administered test that measures the child’s receptive vocabulary. It is used for individuals 2 years old through adulthood. The child is shown a page with four pictures on it. The examiner says the name of one of the pictures and asks the child to point to it. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test 4. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT): This test works by measuring the student’s ability to match an object or concept with its name. When the examiner says a certain word, the student identifies which of the four illustrations on the plate shows the word’s meaning. It can be used in conjunction with the EOWPVT (Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test) to examine developmental differences in receptive and expressive language skills; the two tests were co-normed. It is given to children ages 2-18 years.

    Brownell, R. (2000). Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition (TAPS-3): This test measures what the person does with what is heard, and can be used for ages 4-18. There are numerous subscores, and three cluster scores including Basic Auditory Skills, Auditory Memory, and Auditory cohesion. The subtests are arranged in a developmental progression from easiest to hardest, and an additional test, Auditory Figure-Ground, is also available to evaluate how the child’s processing skills relate to the real world. This test is meant to be used alongside other tests for a complete evaluation.

    Martin, N.A., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Early Written Language 2 (TEWL-2): Three scores are reported: the Global Writing Quotient; the Basic Writing Quotient, which measures ability in spelling, capitalization, punctuation and sentence structure; and the Contextual Writing Quotient, which measures the ability of the child to invent a story when shown a picture, taking into account format, cohesion, thematic elements, and story structure. It is used for children ages 3-10 years.

    Hresko, W., Herron, S., & Peak, P. (2001). Test of Early Written Language 2. Pearson. Bloomington, MN.

  • Test of Narrative Language (TNL): This test is unique in that it measures how well children use their knowledge of language in functional discourse, as opposed to measuring knowledge of the actual components of language. The test includes three formats—one without picture cues to test auditory comprehension, and both single and sequence picture cues. The testing session is recorded and used to identify children with language impairments. It is administered to children ages 5-11.

    Gillam, R.B. & Pearson, N.A. (2004). Test of Narrative Language. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

  • Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL): This test is used to evaluate social language skills. It includes 44 items, each of which establishes a social context. After a verbal stimulus prompt from the examiner, who also displays a picture, the child responds to the dilemma. This test is used for children ages 5–11. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Phelps-Terasaki, D., & Phelps-Gunn, T. (1992). Test of pragmatic language. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Written Language, Third Edition (TOWL-3): The Test of Written Language is a comprehensive test of written language, most useful in identifying student writers who are performing substantially below their peers. The child writes a story about a picture that is shown. It can be administered to children ages of 7–18 years, in individual or group settings. The story is scored based on the child’s understanding of written vocabulary words, as well as spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Hammill, D. D., & Larsen, S. C. (1996). Test of written language-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition (TWS-5): This dictation-based spelling test comes with two alternate forms, so that the test can be repeated to evaluate progress. The norm-referenced test was formulated after a review of 2,000 spelling rules. The student is evaluated on spelling words in written form and the test can be used to identify those who may need intervention and to diagnose specific areas of strength and weakness. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 6–18.

    Moats, L.C., Larsen, S., & Hammill, D. (2013). Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Word Test 2: Elementary: This test investigates the child’s understanding of word relationships and how he/she stores, recalls, and uses vocabulary. The results can be used to coordinate therapy and classroom objectives. The test is made of six subtests, including associations, synonyms, semantic absurdities, antonyms, definitions, and flexible word use. It is administered to children 6-11 years old.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., LoGiudice, C. & Orman, J. (2004). The Word Test 2: Elementary. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

Reading
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2): This test measures phonological abilities and processing skills using three indicators: the Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), the Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) and the Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ). These assess awareness levels, retrieval from short-term and long-term memory storage, and the ability to quickly process tasks. The test also helps to monitor progress achieved by special intervention programs and is given to children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age.

    Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., Rashotte, C., & Pearson, N. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teach Strategies (DAR-TTS): The DAR test is given to ages 5-adult to measure students’ strengths and weaknesses in key areas of student learning with reading, including print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading accuracy and fluency, silent reading comprehension, spelling and word meaning. The DAR was developed for classroom use, as well as for reading specialists, special education teachers, and other professionals to help students read better, but no special requirements are needed for administration. The test is scored simultaneously with administration and DAR ScoringPro and the test is untimed, generally encompassing about 40 minutes; there are two forms to allow progress measurement with pre- and post measurement. The Trial Teaching Strategies program is an online resource meant to accompany the DAR test. It provides short lessons that address the student’s strengths and weaknesses from the test. The student or professional can log in and input the DAR results to obtain learning strategies.

    Florence G. Roswell, Florence G., Chall, Jeanne S., Curtis, Mary E. & Kearns, Gail. (2005). The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing. (2006) Trial Teach Strategies.

  • Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fourth Edition (GORT-4): This is a test that measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. GORT assists the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. It is intended for children 7–19 years old. There are two tests forms, each containing 14 reading sequences and relevant questions. This test is administered to children ages 6–18. Norm-referenced testing is used; raw scores are converted into grade equivalent scores and standard scores.

    Wiederhold, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2001). Gray oral reading tests-4. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (GORT-5): This is a test that measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. GORT assists the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. There are two tests forms, each containing 14 reading sequences and relevant questions. This test is administered to children ages 6-0 to 23-11. Norm-referenced testing is used; raw scores are converted into grade equivalent scores and standard scores.

    Wiederhold, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2012). Gray oral reading tests-5. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Qualitative Reading Inventory, Fifth Edition (QRI-5): This test assesses reading ability at emergent through high school levels. The test provides graded word lists and many written passages that are designed to help evaluate the child’s oral reading, silent reading, and listening comprehension. The child is also asked questions about his or her prior knowledge. Raw scores are used to convert results into reading level scores.

    Caldwell, J. S., & Leslie, L. (2011). Qualitative reading inventory-5. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

  • Rapid Automatic Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests: The RAN/RAS measures word retrieval fluency and helps to identify students who might be at risk for reading failure. The test consists of four rapid naming tests for familiar letters, numbers, colors and objects and two rapid alternating stimulus tests. This assessment can be completed in 5 to 10 minutes and is easy to administer and score. It is designed for kindergarten through high school students.

    Wolf, M, & Denckla, B. (2005). Rapid Automatic Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests (RAN/RAS). Austin, TX: ProEd Publishing Company.

  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R): This test is used to assess basic skills in reading and comprehension. Its main purpose is to measure several important aspects of reading ability. It tests children in kindergarten to adulthood and the administration takes 40–45 minutes for the entire battery and 15 minutes for the Short Scale. The tests have a Readiness Cluster, Basic Skills Cluster, Reading Comprehension Cluster, Total Reading-Full Scale, and Total Reading-Short Scale, plus a supplementary letter checklist. Norm tables are provided to convert raw scores into W scores, grade-equivalents, age-equivalents, and standard scores.

    Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading and mastery tests: Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Achievement
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition Comprehensive Form (KTEA-II): The KTEA-II provides scores for academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language composite areas, as well as several reading-related skills. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 4–25. Age and grade-standard scores can be calculated.

    Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman N. L. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II): This is an individually-administered battery used to assess the achievement of individuals ages 4 through adulthood. It provides composite scores in four domains of educational achievement: reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language. It is used to make meaningful comparisons between achievement and ability performance, therefore noting if there is any discrepancy between them. Norm-referenced scoring is used, either based on age or grade.

    Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH): This assessment measures individual academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and knowledge. Testing can begin at 2 years of age and proceed through adulthood (2–90+). The test consists of questions that are read aloud by the examiner. The child then responds to the question either verbally or by writing. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Intelligence
  • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II): This assessment is designed to measure the processing and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents ages 3–18. There are four main areas that comprise the score: sequential processing scale, simultaneous processing scale, achievement scale, and mental processing. The sequential processing scale measures the short-term memory of the child by having the child perform subtests that are related to sequence order. The simultaneous processing scale asks the child to use problem solving skills that require several processes at the same time. The achievement scale is a scale that tests the ability of the child to use applied skills learned through home or school. The mental processing is the combination of the sequential and the simultaneous processing tests. The mental processing score is considered a very good estimate of the intellectual functioning level of the child.

    Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children- II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition Integrated (WISC-IV Integrated): This is a test that is administered to children ages 6–17 years old. The WISC-IV Integrated is organized by four cognitive domains: verbal, perceptual, working memory, and processing speed. The test includes standardized measures of test behavior, problem-solving style, and cognitive processes. The test provides a systematic observation of a child's unique problem-solving strategies and can assist the experienced clinician in determining an individual child's strengths and weaknesses, setting baselines for performance, monitoring changes over time and determining recommendations for accommodations. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Wechsler, D., Fein, D., Kramer J., Morris, R., Delis, D., et al. (2004). Wechsler intelligence scale for children IV. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG): This test provides a set of individually-administered tests to measure a child’s academic and intellectual achievements. These are tests specifically engineered to measure cognitive abilities and aspects related to cognitive functioning. These tests assess knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking. Some of the tests are appropriate for children as young as 24 months, but all tests can be administered to individuals between the ages of 5 and 95 years old. The WJ III COG was co-normed with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Special norms are provided for college and university students.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Articulation
  • Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3): This is a norm-referenced test of standard American English consonant and vowel articulation that can be administered to individuals 1.5-19 years of age. This test focuses on the articulation of sounds while using pictures to assess consonant, vowel, or single phoneme pronunciation. The child will be asked to name pictures shown by the examiner, and then is asked a question about the card to test vocabulary.

    Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale-3. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

  • Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Second Edition (GFTA-2): This is a norm-referenced test which focuses on the articulation of sounds by isolating a consonant in each word position (beginning, middle, and end). The test is divided into three parts: sounds in words, sounds in sentences, and stimulability. These are intended to assess consonant production across different speaking conditions. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old.

    Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation-2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA-2): This test is meant as a companion to the G-FTA-2. Together with this test, the KLPA-2 functions to give a phonological analysis of articulation ability. It helps you diagnose and plan remediation for ten common phonological disorders such as Initial Voicing and Liquid Simplification. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old. Scoring can also be done via CD-ROM.

    Khan, L., & Lewis, N. (1986). Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

Social
  • Test of Problem Solving 3: Elementary (TOPS-3): This tests a child’s reasoning and thinking abilities for everyday events. It is given to children ages 6–13. During the test, the child is shown a string of pictures that deal with health, environment, learning, community, and family problems. The child is then asked about the pictures and is evaluated based on his or her responses and problem solving skills. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., & LoGiudice, C. (2005). Test of problem solving: Elementary-3. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II): This is a test administered to the parent or the caregiver in an interview format. It is used to assess individuals from birth to adulthood. It measures the personal and social skills an individual uses in daily situations in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and developmental delays. The scale includes 297 items that provide a very general assessment of adaptive behavior. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-II. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Motor Skills
  • The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 5th Edition (Beery VMI): This test is given to children ages 2–18. It measures the extent to which the child can integrate their visual and motor skills. The Beery VMI includes two forms: full and short. The full form consists of 30 items and can be used with children ages 2 to 18 years and adults to age 100. The short form includes 21 items and is used with children ages 2 through 7 years. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Beery, K. E., & Beery, N. A. (2004). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: 5th edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

MIDDLE SCHOOL (12-14 YEARS)

Language: Oral and Written
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-5): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 21 years of age. The test assesses language content and form in both expressive and receptive language modalities. In addition, it includes a subtest for the assessment of pragmatics. The CELF-5 has been explicitly designed to adhere to state and federal regulations, as specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendment of 1997, and to facilitate the development of individualized education programs.

    Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-5. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 21 years of age. Language processing skills including comprehension, expression and retrieval are measured in fifteen tests, in four language structure categories: Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic. The different tests can be administered on an as-needed basis. The test is orally administered and requires a verbal or nonverbal response; no reading or writing is necessary.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (EOWPVT-4): This is a picture-naming test that measures the child’s naming and expressive vocabulary skills. It is given to children ages 2–18 years. Administration can be completed in less than 20 minutes. Scores are reported as age equivalents.

    Martin, N., & Brownell, R (2000). Expressive one-word picture vocabulary test [2000 Edition]. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

  • Oral and Written Language Scales: Written Expression (OWLS Written Expression): This is an individually administered test that is used for ages 5–21. It has three scales: written expression, oral expression, and listening comprehension. The written expression scale measures the use of handwriting, spelling, and punctuation. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and written language scales: Written expression. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4): This is an individually-administered test that measures the child’s receptive vocabulary. It is used for individuals 2 years old through adulthood. The child is shown a page with four pictures on it. The examiner says the name of one of the pictures and asks the child to point to it. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test 4. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT): This test works by measuring the student’s ability to match an object or concept with its name. When the examiner says a certain word, the student identifies which of the four illustrations on the plate shows the word’s meaning. It can be used in conjunction with the EOWPVT (Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test) to examine developmental differences in receptive and expressive language skills; the two tests were co-normed. It is given to children ages 2-18 years.

    Brownell, R. (2000). Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition (TAPS-3): This test measures what the person does with what is heard, and can be used for ages 4-18. There are numerous subscores, and three cluster scores including Basic Auditory Skills, Auditory Memory, and Auditory cohesion. The subtests are arranged in a developmental progression from easiest to hardest, and an additional test, Auditory Figure-Ground, is also available to evaluate how the child’s processing skills relate to the real world. This test is meant to be used alongside other tests for a complete evaluation.

    Martin, N.A., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Written Language, Third Edition (TOWL-3): The Test of Written Language is a comprehensive test of written language, most useful in identifying student writers who are performing substantially below their peers. The child writes a story about a picture that is shown. It can be administered to children ages of 7–18 years, in individual or group settings. The story is scored based on the child’s understanding of written vocabulary words, as well as spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Hammill, D. D., & Larsen, S. C. (1996). Test of written language-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition (TWS-5): This dictation-based spelling test comes with two alternate forms, so that the test can be repeated to evaluate progress. The norm-referenced test was formulated after a review of 2,000 spelling rules. The student is evaluated on spelling words in written form and the test can be used to identify those who may need intervention and to diagnose specific areas of strength and weakness. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 6–18.

    Moats, L.C., Larsen, S., & Hammill, D. (2013). Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Word Test 2: Adolescent: This test has new stimulus items taken from age-appropriate classroom curriculum to test the words students need to know. There are six subtests: associations, synonyms, semantic absurdities, antonyms, definitions, and flexible word use. It is administered to children 12-17 years old.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., LoGiudice, C. & Orman, J. (2005). The Word Test 2: Adolescent. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

Reading
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2): This test measures phonological abilities and processing skills using three indicators: the Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), the Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) and the Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ). These assess awareness levels, retrieval from short-term and long-term memory storage, and the ability to quickly process tasks. The test also helps to monitor progress achieved by special intervention programs and is given to children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age.

    Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., Rashotte, C., & Pearson, N. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teach Strategies (DAR-TTS): The DAR test is given to ages 5-adult to measure students’ strengths and weaknesses in key areas of student learning with reading, including print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading accuracy and fluency, silent reading comprehension, spelling and word meaning. The DAR was developed for classroom use, as well as for reading specialists, special education teachers, and other professionals to help students read better, but no special requirements are needed for administration. The test is scored simultaneously with administration and DAR ScoringPro and the test is untimed, generally encompassing about 40 minutes; there are two forms to allow progress measurement with pre- and post measurement. The Trial Teaching Strategies program is an online resource meant to accompany the DAR test. It provides short lessons that address the student’s strengths and weaknesses from the test. The student or professional can log in and input the DAR results to obtain learning strategies.

    Florence G. Roswell, Florence G., Chall, Jeanne S., Curtis, Mary E. & Kearns, Gail. (2005). The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing. (2006) Trial Teach Strategies.

  • Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (GORT-5): This is a test that measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. GORT assists the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. There are two tests forms, each containing 14 reading sequences and relevant questions. This test is administered to children ages 6-0 to 23-11. Norm-referenced testing is used; raw scores are converted into grade equivalent scores and standard scores.

    Wiederhold, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2012). Gray oral reading tests-5. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Gray Silent Reading Tests (GSRT): This assessment tests the child’s ability to comprehend while reading silently. The GSRT consists of two parallel forms, each with 13 paragraphs (stories). Each story is followed by five multiple-choice questions designed to assess comprehension of unfamiliar reading material. The assessment can be used to help children whose reading comprehension is behind peers. The test is administered to children ages 7–25. Each form yields raw scores, grade equivalents, age equivalents, percentiles, and a Silent Reading Quotient.

    Blalock, G., & Wiederholt, J. L. (2000). Gray silent reading tests. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Qualitative Reading Inventory, Fifth Edition (QRI-5): This test assesses reading ability at emergent through high school levels. The test provides graded word lists and many written passages that are designed to help evaluate the child’s oral reading, silent reading, and listening comprehension. The child is also asked questions about his or her prior knowledge. Raw scores are used to convert results into reading level scores.

    Caldwell, J. S., & Leslie, L. (2011). Qualitative reading inventory-5. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R): This test is used to assess basic skills in reading and comprehension. Its main purpose is to measure several important aspects of reading ability. It tests children in kindergarten to adulthood and the administration takes 40–45 minutes for the entire battery and 15 minutes for the Short Scale. The tests have a Readiness Cluster, Basic Skills Cluster, Reading Comprehension Cluster, Total Reading-Full Scale, and Total Reading-Short Scale, plus a supplementary letter checklist. Norm tables are provided to convert raw scores into W scores, grade-equivalents, age-equivalents, and standard scores.

    Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading and mastery tests: Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Achievement
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition Comprehensive Form (KTEA-II): The KTEA-II provides scores for academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language composite areas, as well as several reading-related skills. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 4–25. Age and grade-standard scores can be calculated.

    Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman N. L. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II): This is an individually-administered battery used to assess the achievement of individuals ages 4 through adulthood. It provides composite scores in four domains of educational achievement: reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language. It is used to make meaningful comparisons between achievement and ability performance, therefore noting if there is any discrepancy between them. Norm-referenced scoring is used, either based on age or grade.

    Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH): This assessment measures individual academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and knowledge. Testing can begin at 2 years of age and proceed through adulthood (2–90+). The test consists of questions that are read aloud by the examiner. The child then responds to the question either verbally or by writing. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Intelligence
  • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II): This assessment is designed to measure the processing and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents ages 3–18. There are four main areas that comprise the score: sequential processing scale, simultaneous processing scale, achievement scale, and mental processing. The sequential processing scale measures the short-term memory of the child by having the child perform subtests that are related to sequence order. The simultaneous processing scale asks the child to use problem solving skills that require several processes at the same time. The achievement scale is a scale that tests the ability of the child to use applied skills learned through home or school. The mental processing is the combination of the sequential and the simultaneous processing tests. The mental processing score is considered a very good estimate of the intellectual functioning level of the child.

    Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children- II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition Integrated (WISC-IV Integrated): This is a test that is administered to children ages 6–17 years old. The WISC-IV Integrated is organized by four cognitive domains: verbal, perceptual, working memory, and processing speed. The test includes standardized measures of test behavior, problem-solving style, and cognitive processes. The test provides a systematic observation of a child's unique problem-solving strategies and can assist the experienced clinician in determining an individual child's strengths and weaknesses, setting baselines for performance, monitoring changes over time and determining recommendations for accommodations. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Wechsler, D., Fein, D., Kramer J., Morris, R., Delis, D., et al. (2004). Wechsler intelligence scale for children IV. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG): This test provides a set of individually-administered tests to measure a child’s academic and intellectual achievements. These are tests specifically engineered to measure cognitive abilities and aspects related to cognitive functioning. These tests assess knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking. Some of the tests are appropriate for children as young as 24 months, but all tests can be administered to individuals between the ages of 5 and 95 years old. The WJ III COG was co-normed with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Special norms are provided for college and university students.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Articulation
  • Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3): This is a norm-referenced test of standard American English consonant and vowel articulation that can be administered to individuals 1.5-19 years of age. This test focuses on the articulation of sounds while using pictures to assess consonant, vowel, or single phoneme pronunciation. The child will be asked to name pictures shown by the examiner, and then is asked a question about the card to test vocabulary.

    Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale-3. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

  • Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Second Edition (GFTA-2): This is a norm-referenced test which focuses on the articulation of sounds by isolating a consonant in each word position (beginning, middle, and end). The test is divided into three parts: sounds in words, sounds in sentences, and stimulability. These are intended to assess consonant production across different speaking conditions. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old.

    Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation-2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA-2): This test is meant as a companion to the G-FTA-2. Together with this test, the KLPA-2 functions to give a phonological analysis of articulation ability. It helps you diagnose and plan remediation for ten common phonological disorders such as Initial Voicing and Liquid Simplification. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old. Scoring can also be done via CD-ROM.

    Khan, L., & Lewis, N. (1986). Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

Social
  • Test of Problem Solving 3: Elementary (TOPS-3): This tests a child’s reasoning and thinking abilities for everyday events. It is given to children ages 6–13. During the test, the child is shown a string of pictures that deal with health, environment, learning, community, and family problems. The child is then asked about the pictures and is evaluated based on his or her responses and problem solving skills. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., & LoGiudice, C. (2005). Test of problem solving: Elementary-3. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II): This is a test administered to the parent or the caregiver in an interview format. It is used to assess individuals from birth to adulthood. It measures the personal and social skills an individual uses in daily situations in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and developmental delays. The scale includes 297 items that provide a very general assessment of adaptive behavior. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-II. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Motor Skills
  • The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 5th Edition (Beery VMI): This test is given to children ages 2–18. It measures the extent to which the child can integrate their visual and motor skills. The Beery VMI includes two forms: full and short. The full form consists of 30 items and can be used with children ages 2 to 18 years and adults to age 100. The short form includes 21 items and is used with children ages 2 through 7 years. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Beery, K. E., & Beery, N. A. (2004). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: 5th edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

     

HIGH SCHOOL (14-18 YEARS)

Language: Oral and Written
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-5): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 21 years of age. The test assesses language content and form in both expressive and receptive language modalities. In addition, it includes a subtest for the assessment of pragmatics. The CELF-5 has been explicitly designed to adhere to state and federal regulations, as specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendment of 1997, and to facilitate the development of individualized education programs.

    Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-5. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 21 years of age. Language processing skills including comprehension, expression and retrieval are measured in fifteen tests, in four language structure categories: Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic. The different tests can be administered on an as-needed basis. The test is orally administered and requires a verbal or nonverbal response; no reading or writing is necessary.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (EOWPVT-4): This is a picture-naming test that measures the child’s naming and expressive vocabulary skills. It is given to children ages 2–18 years. Administration can be completed in less than 20 minutes. Scores are reported as age equivalents.

    Martin, N., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive one-word picture vocabulary test, fourth edition. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

  • Oral and Written Language Scales: Written Expression (OWLS Written Expression): This is an individually administered test that is used for ages 5–21. It has three scales: written expression, oral expression, and listening comprehension. The written expression scale measures the use of handwriting, spelling, and punctuation. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and written language scales: Written expression. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4): This is an individually-administered test that measures the child’s receptive vocabulary. It is used for individuals 2 years old through adulthood. The child is shown a page with four pictures on it. The examiner says the name of one of the pictures and asks the child to point to it. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test 4. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT): This test works by measuring the student’s ability to match an object or concept with its name. When the examiner says a certain word, the student identifies which of the four illustrations on the plate shows the word’s meaning. It can be used in conjunction with the EOWPVT (Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test) to examine developmental differences in receptive and expressive language skills; the two tests were co-normed. It is given to children ages 2-18 years.

    Brownell, R. (2000). Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition (TAPS-3): This test measures what the person does with what is heard, and can be used for ages 4-18. There are numerous subscores, and three cluster scores including Basic Auditory Skills, Auditory Memory, and Auditory cohesion. The subtests are arranged in a developmental progression from easiest to hardest, and an additional test, Auditory Figure-Ground, is also available to evaluate how the child’s processing skills relate to the real world. This test is meant to be used alongside other tests for a complete evaluation.

    Martin, N.A., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills 3rd Edition. Academic Therapy Publications. Novato, CA.

  • Test of Written Language, Third Edition (TOWL-3): The Test of Written Language is a comprehensive test of written language, most useful in identifying student writers who are performing substantially below their peers. The child writes a story about a picture that is shown. It can be administered to children ages of 7–18 years, in individual or group settings. The story is scored based on the child’s understanding of written vocabulary words, as well as spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Hammill, D. D., & Larsen, S. C. (1996). Test of written language-3. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition (TWS-5): This dictation-based spelling test comes with two alternate forms, so that the test can be repeated to evaluate progress. The norm-referenced test was formulated after a review of 2,000 spelling rules. The student is evaluated on spelling words in written form and the test can be used to identify those who may need intervention and to diagnose specific areas of strength and weakness. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 6–18.

    Moats, L.C., Larsen, S., & Hammill, D. (2013). Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Word Test 2: Adolescent: This test has new stimulus items taken from age-appropriate classroom curriculum to test the words students need to know. There are six subtests: associations, synonyms, semantic absurdities, antonyms, definitions, and flexible word use. It is administered to children 12-17 years old.

    Bowers, L., Huisingh, R., LoGiudice, C. & Orman, J. (2005). The Word Test 2: Adolescent. LinguiSystems. East Moline, IL.

Reading
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2): This test measures phonological abilities and processing skills using three indicators: the Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), the Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) and the Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ). These assess awareness levels, retrieval from short-term and long-term memory storage, and the ability to quickly process tasks. The test also helps to monitor progress achieved by special intervention programs and is given to children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age.

    Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., Rashotte, C., & Pearson, N. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teach Strategies (DAR-TTS): The DAR test is given to ages 5-adult to measure students’ strengths and weaknesses in key areas of student learning with reading, including print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading accuracy and fluency, silent reading comprehension, spelling and word meaning. The DAR was developed for classroom use, as well as for reading specialists, special education teachers, and other professionals to help students read better, but no special requirements are needed for administration. The test is scored simultaneously with administration and DAR ScoringPro and the test is untimed, generally encompassing about 40 minutes; there are two forms to allow progress measurement with pre- and post measurement. The Trial Teaching Strategies program is an online resource meant to accompany the DAR test. It provides short lessons that address the student’s strengths and weaknesses from the test. The student or professional can log in and input the DAR results to obtain learning strategies.

    Florence G. Roswell, Florence G., Chall, Jeanne S., Curtis, Mary E. & Kearns, Gail. (2005). The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing. (2006) Trial Teach Strategies.

  • Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (GORT-5): This is a test that measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. GORT assists the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. There are two tests forms, each containing 14 reading sequences and relevant questions. This test is administered to children ages 6-0 to 23-11. Norm-referenced testing is used; raw scores are converted into grade equivalent scores and standard scores.

    Wiederhold, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2012). Gray oral reading tests-5. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Gray Silent Reading Tests (GSRT): This assessment tests the child’s ability to comprehend while reading silently. The GSRT consists of two parallel forms, each with 13 paragraphs (stories). Each story is followed by five multiple-choice questions designed to assess comprehension of unfamiliar reading material. The assessment can be used to help children whose reading comprehension is behind peers. The test is administered to children ages 7–25. Each form yields raw scores, grade equivalents, age equivalents, percentiles, and a Silent Reading Quotient.

    Blalock, G., & Wiederholt, J. L. (2000). Gray silent reading tests. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • The Nelson- Denny Reading Test of Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, and Reading Rate: This test is administered to those in grades 9-16, and adults. The test accesses student achievement in vocabulary, comprehension and reading rate to aid in placement of high school and college students, and to identify those with reading problems. It can also be used to measure progress achieved from educational interventions. The vocabulary section focuses on commonly-needed words from high school and college classrooms, and the comprehension passages are drawn from widely-used college and high school texts. National norms for high schools, and two- and four-year colleges are used, and the test takes 35 minutes to administer, with an option for the extended time administration of 56 minutes.

    Brown, James I., Fishco, Vivian Vick & Hanna, Gerald S. (1993). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test of Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension and Reading Rate. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing.

  • Qualitative Reading Inventory, Fifth Edition (QRI-5): This test assesses reading ability at emergent through high school levels. The test provides graded word lists and many written passages that are designed to help evaluate the child’s oral reading, silent reading, and listening comprehension. The child is also asked questions about his or her prior knowledge. Raw scores are used to convert results into reading level scores.
  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R): This test is used to assess basic skills in reading and comprehension. Its main purpose is to measure several important aspects of reading ability. It tests children in kindergarten to adulthood and the administration takes 40–45 minutes for the entire battery and 15 minutes for the Short Scale. The tests have a Readiness Cluster, Basic Skills Cluster, Reading Comprehension Cluster, Total Reading-Full Scale, and Total Reading-Short Scale, plus a supplementary letter checklist. Norm tables are provided to convert raw scores into W scores, grade-equivalents, age-equivalents, and standard scores.

    Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading and mastery tests: Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Achievement
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition Comprehensive Form (KTEA-II): The KTEA-II provides scores for academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language composite areas, as well as several reading-related skills. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 4–25. Age and grade-standard scores can be calculated.

    Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman N. L. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II): This is an individually-administered battery used to assess the achievement of individuals ages 4 through adulthood. It provides composite scores in four domains of educational achievement: reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language. It is used to make meaningful comparisons between achievement and ability performance, therefore noting if there is any discrepancy between them. Norm-referenced scoring is used, either based on age or grade.

    Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH): This assessment measures individual academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and knowledge. Testing can begin at 2 years of age and proceed through adulthood (2–90+). The test consists of questions that are read aloud by the examiner. The child then responds to the question either verbally or by writing. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Intelligence
  • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II): This assessment is designed to measure the processing and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents ages 3–18. There are four main areas that comprise the score: sequential processing scale, simultaneous processing scale, achievement scale, and mental processing. The sequential processing scale measures the short-term memory of the child by having the child perform subtests that are related to sequence order. The simultaneous processing scale asks the child to use problem solving skills that require several processes at the same time. The achievement scale is a scale that tests the ability of the child to use applied skills learned through home or school. The mental processing is the combination of the sequential and the simultaneous processing tests. The mental processing score is considered a very good estimate of the intellectual functioning level of the child.

    Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children-II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition Integrated (WISC-IV Integrated): This is a test that is administered to children ages 6–17 years old. The WISC-IV Integrated is organized by four cognitive domains: verbal, perceptual, working memory, and processing speed. The test includes standardized measures of test behavior, problem-solving style, and cognitive processes. The test provides a systematic observation of a child's unique problem-solving strategies and can assist the experienced clinician in determining an individual child's strengths and weaknesses, setting baselines for performance, monitoring changes over time and determining recommendations for accommodations. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Wechsler, D., Fein, D., Kramer J., Morris, R., Delis, D., et al. (2004). Wechsler intelligence scale for children IV. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG): This test provides a set of individually-administered tests to measure a child’s academic and intellectual achievements. These are tests specifically engineered to measure cognitive abilities and aspects related to cognitive functioning. These tests assess knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking. Some of the tests are appropriate for children as young as 24 months, but all tests can be administered to individuals between the ages of 5 and 95 years old. The WJ III COG was co-normed with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Special norms are provided for college and university students.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Articulation
  • Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3): This is a norm-referenced test of standard American English consonant and vowel articulation that can be administered to individuals 1.5-19 years of age. This test focuses on the articulation of sounds while using pictures to assess consonant, vowel, or single phoneme pronunciation. The child will be asked to name pictures shown by the examiner, and then is asked a question about the card to test vocabulary.

    Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale-3. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

  • Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Second Edition (GFTA-2): This is a norm-referenced test which focuses on the articulation of sounds by isolating a consonant in each word position (beginning, middle, and end). The test is divided into three parts: sounds in words, sounds in sentences, and stimulability. These are intended to assess consonant production across different speaking conditions. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old.

    Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation-2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA-2): This test is meant as a companion to the G-FTA-2. Together with this test, the KLPA-2 functions to give a phonological analysis of articulation ability. It helps you diagnose and plan remediation for ten common phonological disorders such as Initial Voicing and Liquid Simplification. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old. Scoring can also be done via CD-ROM.

    Khan, L., & Lewis, N. (1986). Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

Social
  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II): This is a test administered to the parent or the caregiver in an interview format. It is used to assess individuals from birth to adulthood. It measures the personal and social skills an individual uses in daily situations in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and developmental delays. The scale includes 297 items that provide a very general assessment of adaptive behavior. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-II. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Motor Skills
  • The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 5th Edition (Beery VMI): This test is given to children ages 2–18. It measures the extent to which the child can integrate their visual and motor skills. The Beery VMI includes two forms: full and short. The full form consists of 30 items and can be used with children ages 2 to 18 years and adults to age 100. The short form includes 21 items and is used with children ages 2 through 7 years. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Beery, K. E., & Beery, N. A. (2004). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: 5th edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

     

ADULT (18-25 YEARS)

Language: Oral and Written
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-5): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 21 years of age. The test assesses language content and form in both expressive and receptive language modalities. In addition, it includes a subtest for the assessment of pragmatics. The CELF-5 has been explicitly designed to adhere to state and federal regulations, as specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendment of 1997, and to facilitate the development of individualized education programs.

    Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-5. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL): This assessment was developed to identify, diagnose, and provide follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 21 years of age. Language processing skills including comprehension, expression and retrieval are measured in fifteen tests, in four language structure categories: Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic. The different tests can be administered on an as-needed basis. The test is orally administered and requires a verbal or nonverbal response; no reading or writing is necessary.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1999). Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

  • Oral and Written Language Scales: Written Expression (OWLS Written Expression): This is an individually administered test that is used for ages 5–21. It has three scales: written expression, oral expression, and listening comprehension. The written expression scale measures the use of handwriting, spelling, and punctuation. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and written language scales: Written expression. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4): This is an individually-administered test that measures the child’s receptive vocabulary. It is used for individuals 2 years old through adulthood. The child is shown a page with four pictures on it. The examiner says the name of one of the pictures and asks the child to point to it. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test 4. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.

Reading
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2): This test measures phonological abilities and processing skills using three indicators: the Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ), the Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) and the Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ). These assess awareness levels, retrieval from short-term and long-term memory storage, and the ability to quickly process tasks. The test also helps to monitor progress achieved by special intervention programs and is given to children, adolescents, and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age.

    Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., Rashotte, C., & Pearson, N. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition. PRO-ED. Austin, TX.

  • The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teach Strategies (DAR-TTS): The DAR test is given to ages 5-adult to measure students’ strengths and weaknesses in key areas of student learning with reading, including print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading accuracy and fluency, silent reading comprehension, spelling and word meaning. The DAR was developed for classroom use, as well as for reading specialists, special education teachers, and other professionals to help students read better, but no special requirements are needed for administration. The test is scored simultaneously with administration and DAR ScoringPro and the test is untimed, generally encompassing about 40 minutes; there are two forms to allow progress measurement with pre- and post measurement. The Trial Teaching Strategies program is an online resource meant to accompany the DAR test. It provides short lessons that address the student’s strengths and weaknesses from the test. The student or professional can log in and input the DAR results to obtain learning strategies.

    Florence G. Roswell, Florence G., Chall, Jeanne S., Curtis, Mary E. & Kearns, Gail. (2005). The Diagnostic Assessments of Reading. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing. (2006) Trial Teach Strategies.

  • Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (GORT-5): This is a test that measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. GORT assists the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. There are two tests forms, each containing 14 reading sequences and relevant questions. This test is administered to children ages 6-0 to 23-11. Norm-referenced testing is used; raw scores are converted into grade equivalent scores and standard scores.

    Wiederhold, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2012). Gray oral reading tests-5. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Gray Silent Reading Tests (GSRT): This assessment tests the child’s ability to comprehend while reading silently. The GSRT consists of two parallel forms, each with 13 paragraphs (stories). Each story is followed by five multiple-choice questions designed to assess comprehension of unfamiliar reading material. The assessment can be used to help children whose reading comprehension is behind peers. The test is administered to children ages 7–25. Each form yields raw scores, grade equivalents, age equivalents, percentiles, and a Silent Reading Quotient.

    Blalock, G., & Wiederholt, J. L. (2000). Gray silent reading tests. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • The Nelson- Denny Reading Test of Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, and Reading Rate: This test is administered to those in grades 9-16, and adults. The test accesses student achievement in vocabulary, comprehension and reading rate to aid in placement of high school and college students, and to identify those with reading problems. It can also be used to measure progress achieved from educational interventions. The vocabulary section focuses on commonly-needed words from high school and college classrooms, and the comprehension passages are drawn from widely-used college and high school texts. National norms for high schools, and two- and four-year colleges are used, and the test takes 35 minutes to administer, with an option for the extended time administration of 56 minutes.

    Brown, James I., Fishco, Vivian Vick & Hanna, Gerald S. (1993). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test of Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension and Reading Rate. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing.

  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R): This test is used to assess basic skills in reading and comprehension. Its main purpose is to measure several important aspects of reading ability. It tests children in kindergarten to adulthood and the administration takes 40–45 minutes for the entire battery and 15 minutes for the Short Scale. The tests have a Readiness Cluster, Basic Skills Cluster, Reading Comprehension Cluster, Total Reading-Full Scale, and Total Reading-Short Scale, plus a supplementary letter checklist. Norm tables are provided to convert raw scores into W scores, grade-equivalents, age-equivalents, and standard scores.

    Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading and mastery tests: Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Achievement
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition Comprehensive Form (KTEA-II): The KTEA-II provides scores for academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language composite areas, as well as several reading-related skills. This is an individually-administered test for children ages 4–25. Age and grade-standard scores can be calculated.

    Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman N. L. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement II. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II): This is an individually-administered battery used to assess the achievement of individuals ages 4 through adulthood. It provides composite scores in four domains of educational achievement: reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language. It is used to make meaningful comparisons between achievement and ability performance, therefore noting if there is any discrepancy between them. Norm-referenced scoring is used, either based on age or grade.

    Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological.

  • Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH): This assessment measures individual academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and knowledge. Testing can begin at 2 years of age and proceed through adulthood (2–90+). The test consists of questions that are read aloud by the examiner. The child then responds to the question either verbally or by writing. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Intelligence
  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG): This test provides a set of individually-administered tests to measure a child’s academic and intellectual achievements. These are tests specifically engineered to measure cognitive abilities and aspects related to cognitive functioning. These tests assess knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking. Some of the tests are appropriate for children as young as 24 months, but all tests can be administered to individuals between the ages of 5 and 95 years old. The WJ III COG was co-normed with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). Special norms are provided for college and university students.

    Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Articulation
  • Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3): This is a norm-referenced test of standard American English consonant and vowel articulation that can be administered to individuals 1.5-19 years of age. This test focuses on the articulation of sounds while using pictures to assess consonant, vowel, or single phoneme pronunciation. The child will be asked to name pictures shown by the examiner, and then is asked a question about the card to test vocabulary.

    Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale-3. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

  • Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Second Edition (GFTA-2): This is a norm-referenced test which focuses on the articulation of sounds by isolating a consonant in each word position (beginning, middle, and end). The test is divided into three parts: sounds in words, sounds in sentences, and stimulability. These are intended to assess consonant production across different speaking conditions. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old.

    Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2000). Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation-2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

  • Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA-2): This test is meant as a companion to the G-FTA-2. Together with this test, the KLPA-2 functions to give a phonological analysis of articulation ability. It helps you diagnose and plan remediation for ten common phonological disorders such as Initial Voicing and Liquid Simplification. It is administered to children and young adults who are 2-21 years old. Scoring can also be done via CD-ROM.

    Khan, L., & Lewis, N. (1986). Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis. American Guidance Services. Circle Pines, MN.

Social
  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II): This is a test administered to the parent or the caregiver in an interview format. It is used to assess individuals from birth to adulthood. It measures the personal and social skills an individual uses in daily situations in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. All Vineland-II forms aid in diagnosing and classifying intellectual and developmental disabilities and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and developmental delays. The scale includes 297 items that provide a very general assessment of adaptive behavior. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

    Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-II. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.